Doping Control Process, Rio Olympics, 2016: An Overview

The Anti-Doping Programme, conducted by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, in 2016 complies with the World Anti-Doping Code.

In-competition and out-of-competition testing which is carried out as part of the anti-doping programme, and which began on the opening day of the games is the responsibility of the IOC. The IOC is a signatory to the World anti-doping code.

Rio 2016 is shouldering the responsibility of implementing the Games Doping Control Programme, which entails infrastructure and provisions of operation for doping control testing in addition to analysis of samples done according to the Code and other international standards. If, after the analysis, it is found that there has been an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) or Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV), then the case is handed over to the IOC, which handles the management of the detailed results.

Doping control can be implemented any time during the games. And it can happen, as mentioned earlier, in-competition and out-of-competition. Not only urine but also blood samples are gathered from athletes. Samples gathered 12 hours before the commencement of a competition in which a concerned athlete is participating, through to its closure, will undergo analysis in accordance with the in-competition prohibited list of items. Any other sample will undergo analysis with respect to the list of substances which are prohibited at all times.

Any blood or urine sample collected from athletes during Rio 2016 Games is to be tested at Laboratório Brasileiro de Controle de Dopagem (LBCD), which is a WADA-accredited laboratory. The laboratory declares the results of the tests between 24 and 96 hours of receiving the samples. Both WADA and IOC are reported to with the test results. Any anti-doping violation is treated as per IOC rules and regulations.

Although, such a practice is treated strictly, some athletes don’t shy away from doping so as to better performance.

Most athletes, who dope, prefer synthetic steroid hormones that bear resemblance with male sex hormone testosterone. They help build muscles. Hence, are an absolute favourite. You will be surprised to know, many of such hormones are used by medical practitioners to treat ailments. The kind of steroids used illegally by athletes is called anabolic steroids.

Anabolic steroids are a shortcut to gaining superhuman muscles. And that is probably the reason why they are popular even among ordinary bodybuilders.

Many claim that taking steroids is a healthy lifestyle choice and it helps them recover faster from a hard work out. Others, who are against steroid use, might say this is just a way in which people defend steroid use.

Steroids are nothing but organic molecules. The adjective ‘anabolic’ indicates their muscle building properties. One thing that needs to be kept in mind here is that not all steroids are anabolic. There are many steroids that have anti-inflammatory properties and are used by medical practitioners to treat patients. No matter which pharmaceutical name they are known by, most anabolic steroids are derived from testosterone, a hormone produced by men in their testes.

The reason why anabolic steroids are such a popular doping agent is that infused testosterone is hard to distinguish from its naturally occurring counterpart.

The Cause and Effects Of Steroid Abuse

There are very many risks that are associated with steroids. Each particular gender is related to various changes that happen in the body after the use of steroids. The aftermath or the withdrawal symptoms of steroid use links differently to the different people from gender to age.

A while ago a research survey was carried out to try and figure out what adverse effects the continued usage of steroids had on various users of a drug based on a hormone. The survey was such that some participants were grouped into different categories depending on the levels of their addiction to the drug. Among the respondents from the pool that contained the most addicted members it so happened that almost half of the number here went into severe shock related behavior after they were exposed to supportive therapy.

Preliminary investigations were carried out to ascertain the reason why this high number of persons developed this shock conditions. The results of the inquiry revealed that this was due to they had psychological issues relating to the fact that they had failed to achieve their quests having used this particular drug and that they were now the laughing stock of the entire public. It took a lot of coaxing from the organizers of the research to convince these people that what they intended was not to humiliate them publicly but rather to use them as part of the solution to the big menace that is steroid drug use.

Without a doubt, the manner in which the respondents responded to the supportive therapy was linked back to the use of steroids. As the research went on, the individuals were required to provide details about various aspects of their addiction. It was noted that most of the persons were trying to avoid such questions, but the interesting fact was that whenever they displayed jovial moods they were intent on knowing whether there was a way through which they could escape from the clutches of steroid use that had fettered them entirely.

What made the situation more untenable was the fact that in another category of hardcore steroid addicts one of the patients succumbed to septic shock and sadly passed away after undergoing the therapy. Just some hours after this had happened, another member of the group developed severe breathing difficulties and also passed on.

The research exercise was a real eye-opener of the high risk of steroid abuse. Some of the most significant inferences made were as a result of the behavior that the participants exhibited as a result of being put on supportive therapy. It was noted that the steroid addicts were at significant risk just because they had infringed so much on their stress thresholds and also the fact that their immune systems were profoundly depressed.

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The results that were drawn from this exercise were harmonized with results that had been inferred from different researches and many meaningful conclusions were made. One of the most significant of these was the fact that steroid abuse was a major contributor to the number of deaths that are associated with laryngeal complications. Another cause of death was to do with the surpassing of stress threshold limits.

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8 Tips For Running Faster

Sometimes, in life, it’s good to go a little faster. Those times include when you’re competing in your first mud run, running your hundredth 10K, or just upping your pace on your jogs around the block. We spoke with Scott Weiss, DPT, ATC, CSCS, and a member of the sports medical team for the London Olympics. Shaving seconds off your best time is his bread and butter, and here’s what he has to say:

1. Be Social
Not like on the PinFace or TweetBook. We mean—brace yourself—physically surrounding yourself with another person or a running group. “I find that the people who run with a partner or with a group last the longest versus those people who are self-motivated,” says Dr. Weiss. “And that’s because other runners feed off of each other…and most people need outside motivation. That camaraderie is important and can catapult you to another level.”

The right running partner(s) can help you maintain focus, serve as a distraction from fatigue, keep you from missing workouts, and call out flaws in your running form.

2. Get Outside Feedback
We’re guessing you’re no Prefontaine. And neither was he until coaches and trainers helped him train and hone his running form. “Some people only need a mirror to see what they’re doing wrong, while others need video or a coach that’s on the side yelling ‘Heels deeper!’ or ‘Knees higher!’” says Dr. Weiss.

Whichever camp you fall into, it’s extremely helpful for you to develop proper mechanics. “Biomechanics are crucial for preventing injury and good running experience,” he adds. “So finding an expert to do a running or gait analysis would be a great thing to do.”

3. Fill Your Plate with Carbs
If you’re not eating enough carbohydrates, you won’t have the energy to push yourself. That translates to a lackluster finish in a race. “Protein isn’t the body’s primary energy source. Carbohydrates are the main fuel for runners and your plate should be full of them. Runners are looking to get about three to five grams of carbs per kilogram of bodyweight per day on the days they’re running.”

For this, look toward long-lasting, complex carbohydrate sources that provide lasting energy. This includes brown rice, whole wheat pasta, lentils, starchy veggies. During or immediately after runs, simple carbs work better, such as bananas, grapes, or berries.

4. Don’t Run Every Day
The way you approach rest is as important as the way you approach training. Without adequate nutrition and recovery time you’ll compromise your body’s ability to perform at optimum levels.

“Running more than five days per week increases your chances of injury tremendously,” says Dr. Weiss. “Four days of running per week is ideal. I also suggest that people refrain from training a couple of days before a smaller race. Don’t exercise or run a day or two before the race. Just stretch. This way you’re going to the starting line with a day or two of rest and you’re feeling fresh.”

5. Run the Tangents
The shortest distance between two points is a straight line. We know this because we passed third grade math with a D-. Oddly, it seems like people forget that information when they’re running—specifically with turns. “If you understand the course you’ll want to run the tangents—where you cut the corner to shave time. Going around a whole turn wastes time and energy. You can often cut significant time off your running course by choosing the shortest path through each turn.” Note: This doesn’t include cutting off the turn. That’s cheating.

6. Use Interval Training
“The latest research has been showing that interval training has a good crossover for running. Some days you’ll want to do your long, slower runs, and others you can use interval training. Use a 2:1 ratio where you sprint for 20 meters, jog 40 meters, sprint 20, jog 40, and so on. There is no set time for interval training but you’ll cover most of your bases by keeping all intervals three minutes or less.”

This type of varied training for runners is also called fartlek, which could possibly be the worst-best name in the exercise dictionary. It’s a Swedish word that literally translates into “speed play.”

7. Drink Every 20 Minutes
Studies show dehydrated athletes consistently underperform compared to athletes who are properly hydrated.

“There are so many recommendations as to how much water a person should drink, but runners should aim to consume about 300 ml of water every 20 minutes while they’re running,” Dr. Weiss suggests. That’s 10 ounces for all you non-metric folk.

8. Get Your Head in the Game
Remain focused and fresh before race day by adopting proper sleep. Doctors recommend using your bed only for sleep and sex. Engage in other activities—reading, watching TV, using your iPad—in other areas of your home.

“Your mind is your motor. Some people don’t realize that sleep and training go together because they’re on opposite sides of the spectrum, but rest and sleep are so important,” Dr. Weiss explains. “You’ll want to make sure you’re getting solid sleep to allow the body to repair its joints, muscles, and bones in the days leading up to the race.”


3 Simple Ways to Lose Weight

Beachbody Blog 3 Simple Ways to Lose Weight Woman Measuring Herself

Let’s cut to the quick. Do these things and your diet will get better. Probably much better.

They might be obvious yet, in my experience, many people have trouble following the basics. I guess we’re all wired differently and, thus, we vary in what clicks for us mentally when it comes to instruction. But I can’t tell you how many diets I’ve analyzed that weren’t “working” that were focused on, say, gluten or Paleo or some other trend-of-the-year but weren’t focused on these three simple components.

If you want to lose weight, adopting these three methods is absolutely vital no matter how you’re eating, be it high protein, high carb, high fat, or high fruit.

1. Drink more water
Most people overeat because they’re dehydrated. Drink two glasses of water every morning and keep on going throughout the day. A good gauge is to aim for half your body weight in ounces each day. Or, shoot, just make it an even gallon. You’re unlikely to drink too much, and I’ll bet you drink too little. You’ll be amazed how much better you feel and function when you’re properly hydrated.

2.  Cut out (or at least down) on junk
Most of us know where our diets are going south. We eat too much packaged junk, desserts, fast food, and cheap beer. Like, way too much. Stats show we get more than 10% of our calories from soda, fast food is a jillion-dollar industry, ampms are way more popular than farmer’s markets and we drink more beer, per capita, than the country that invented it. Yet, we have an insatiable appetite for answers to our issues that aren’t (quite literally) right in front of our face.  Instead of worrying about eating like a caveman or whether or not you’re allergic to gluten, try cutting the crap out of your diet and see what that does for you. Chances are you’ll never have to suffer through a diet book again.

3. Eat to fuel recovery (aka eat for what you do)
Instead of eating until you’re stuffed, try eating just enough so you recover from your workout, or whatever else you just did. We’ve gotten used to feeling full as our default state, or goal, which is positively bourgeois In a survival state, aka a performance state, you’d want to feel light, not full. Get used to feeling light and you’ll push harder during your workouts and you’ll end up eating pretty close to optimally because performance is addictive, too.

5 Ways to Sneak Fitness into Family Time

father and dad soccer

After spending several hours a day at a desk job or sitting in traffic while shuttling overscheduled kids from one activity to the next, it’s tempting for families to want to spend their downtime plopped on the couch. The next time you find yourself with an hour or so of unscheduled free time, grab the kids and get moving. Research shows that families that work out together are more likely to stick with it, since they can motivate and encourage each other. And exercising as a family has multiple benefits, from being able to spend quality time with those you love and committing to an active lifestyle, to reducing stress and increasing energy levels. But you don’t have to call it exercise. Here are six activities that let families play together, and promote fit and healthy lifestyles.

  1. Play in the park. Grab an assortment of balls and equipment from the garage (soccer ball, football, basketball, and baseball and gloves), along with a Frisbee and the family dog. Pack a cooler with some water and snacks, and head to your local park with the family for an afternoon of fresh air and playtime. You’ll all have so much fun that you won’t even realize you’re getting a workout.
  2. Go swimming. Swimming is a great way to stay in shape. It’s an excellent workout for people of all ages. Depending on the time of year and where you live, you can head to your local indoor or outdoor pool for fun and affordable family playtime. Swimming helps improve balance, endurance, and posture, and it’s one of the best forms of cardiovascular exercise.Swimming regularly can also increase self-esteem in kids as they become more comfortable in the water and learn to master their strokes. Get some rings and diving sticks, and take turns diving for them. If your kids are young, sign them up for swimming lessons—they can get their lessons while you work out in the lap lanes. Be sure young kids are never left unattended, and remember the sunscreen if you’re outside!
  3. Take a hike. A family hike involves a little more planning than other activities, but the benefits are well worth it. Plan the trail level and hike length around the group’s abilities and experience. If it’s your first family hike, start with a mostly flat trail that’s no more than 1 mile round-trip (you don’t want to start carrying your kids halfway through the hike). Gradually increase the length and trail difficulty with each hike.Bring a few lightweight backpacks with healthy snacks and water bottles. Keep the kids interested by letting them carry the trail map, and having them look for specific items, like interesting wildflowers or rock formations. Most metropolitan towns have family friendly trails offering easy to moderately difficult hiking trails. To find a trail near you, visit
  4. Go for a bike ride. A family bike ride is a great way to get out of the house and get a workout at the same time. Cycling is also one of the best ways to tone and strengthen the upper leg and calf muscles. Turn a family bike ride into an outing by biking to a specific destination (maybe the corner ice cream shop for frozen yogurt?). Make sure everyone wears a helmet and the appropriate gear. And follow the rules of the road!
  5. Jump rope. Rope jumping dates back to 1,600 AD, when the Egyptians used vines for jumping. Nowadays, it’s a great way to burn off energy, reduce stress, improve coordination and endurance, and sing your favorite rhyming songs. Jumping rope at a moderate pace can burn up to 800 calories an hour. For variety, try double Dutch, which is when a person jumps through two jump ropes at the same time. Or invite the neighbors over and have a jump-roping contest, and follow up with an assortment of healthy snacks. You just might start a new tradition.

A Few More Tips for Staying Fit as a Family

  • Get a pedometer for every member of the family. The American Heart Association recommends 10,000 steps a day to stay heart-healthy. Have a family contest and see who can log the most steps in a day.
  • Invest in a family membership at your local YMCA or recreation center. That way, everyone can work out in any kind of weather; you can choose from various activities that will appeal to individual talents and interests.
  • Let the kids take turns choosing a family activity that promotes fitness, and make sure everyone participates!

5 Tips to Overcome Your Fear of Working Out

woman doing push-ups

If your results have hit a brick wall even though you’ve been following your fitness routine faithfully, maybe it’s time to try cross training. What’s that, you say? It’s when you change your regular workout and add in other types of exercise. Here are 6 of the best reasons to cross train:

1. Prevent injury. Doing the same workout over and over again stresses joints, muscles, and ligaments without giving them full recovery. Overuse is one of the primary reasons for injury. Working the same muscles in a different way, or completely different muscle groups, can give your muscles the rest they need to help prevent problems that keep you from training!

2. Balance your muscles. By working different muscle groups, you will maintain muscular symmetry. If you’ve been doing mostly squats and lunges, focusing on your lower body, your upper body may lack the definition that your legs and buns have. Add in an upper-body workout, one that includes resistance training to help you achieve total-body balance. Plus, you’ll get the extra benefit of looking toned all over!

3. Gain strength. With cross training you can increase the overall strength of your muscles. For example, if you run, or do mostly cardio-based workouts, add a sculpting routine. Resistance training dumbbells or bands) can translate into faster running times, and better endurance, not to mention a speedier metabolism.

4. Prevent boredom. Doing the same old thing gets old. Spice up your workout by trying something—or someone—new! If you’ve been following a particular trainer’s programs, try someone else’s. Each trainer has a different style and will challenge—and even entertain you—in different ways. If you’ve done ‘em all, maybe you just need to get outside for a bit. Consider a sport that’s always interested you.

5. Keep making progress with your muscles. Progress with a training routine plateaus somewhere between 4 and 12 weeks. By changing your workout, you make more consistent progress!

6. Rest tired muscles. OK, so you don’t want to give up your workouts, but you feel like your performance is going downhill? Maybe you just need to rest the groups of muscles you’ve been working relentlessly for months on end. Give em’ a break by doing something different. Go for a hike, a bike ride, or a swim.

Ask the Expert: Can I Exercise with a Cold?

Ask the Fitness Expert: Can I exercise with a cold?

I’m on week 5 of INSANITY and got a cold. Should I keep doing the program? —Amel Muzz

Shut it down and get some rest, Amel. It will help you get well sooner and it might end up improving your results in the long term. When you’re sick, your body uses its recovery properties to fight the illness. When you exercise, you use these same properties to recover. To your body, trying to exercise when you’re sick is effectively the same thing as overtraining. You won’t be able to recover from exercise, rendering it useless, as well as increasing the risk of making your illness worse and lengthening your downtime.


Believe it or not, there are actually a couple of upsides to being sick. It both raises your metabolism and heightens your immune response, meaning that you can eat more than normal and not gain weight. Your immune system also releases performance-enhancing hormones that both fight the infection and help you heal microtrauma incurred during your training program. Because of these factors, when I’m sick during a training cycle I consider it my recovery week. Here is my protocol: At the onset of symptoms I bump my vitamin C and zinc levels, drink a ton of water, and sleep as much as possible. If I catch it early enough, I’ll miss the cold. However, your body plays an insidious trick on you at the onset of a cold. Before you feel symptoms, your adrenal system kick-starts the immune response, which often results in a great workout—too good. Prior to a competition, if an athlete sets a personal record or looks too strong, their coach will often shut them down in anticipation of potential pending illness. If a workout feels spectacular out of the blue, consider backing off and adding immune-boosting supplements to your regimen.


Once I know I’m sick, I rest as much as I possibly can. I clear my social schedule, work as little as possible, and shelve any projects (even mental ones) that can wait. My diet becomes very clean. No coffee, alcohol, sugar, junk, and I drink a ton of water. Also, I eat a lot of small meals all day long. Your body needs nutrients when it’s sick but doesn’t want the energy burden of digesting large meals. When the cold has turned the corner I begin moving more. I’ll do low-level aerobic exercise and light yoga—restorative exercise. I’ll build this gradually as I feel better, so that when the symptoms are gone I can hit it hard, right where I left off. When I follow my protocol strictly it will actually aid my fitness program in the long run. Finally, there are times when you’re sick when hard exercise might help, but it’s rare. The most common is near the end of a cold, where the infection has run its course but you still have minor symptoms. You might have heard someone say, “I blew the cold out of my system” with exercise. Just be careful you don’t try this too early or you’ll get worse. Patience may not be your favorite part of training, but sometimes you gotta not do what you gotta not do.